dr. njabulo kambule is a professional in the discipline of energy. in the past decade, he has worked in a variety of energy and climate change related projects, both in the private and academic sectors. he possesses a doctoral qualification in the energy discipline; with specific research interests on societal absorption and effects (i.e., socio-economic, regulatory, political, and environmental) induced by modern energy technologies. he is a research supervisor and lecturer for energy policy formulation (epf) and international, geographical, and political aspects of energy ((igpe) at the university of johannesburg (2016 to the present). he has published several peer-reviewed articled and is an author of a book entitled: the deployment of prepaid electricity meters in sub-saharan africa: riding the fourth industrial wave.